Genome Projects


Cyanobacteria and Related Organisms

Phylogenetic tree of cyanobacteria

1. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

Kaneko et al. (1996) DNA Res 3: 109-136.
3,573,471 bp
unicellular coccoid, facultative heterotroph (glucose-utilizing)
naturally transformable, twitching motility + phototactic motility
more than 7 plasmids

2. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

Kaneko et al (2001) DNA Res. 8: 205-213.
Ohmori et al (2001) DNA Res. 8: 271-284.
6,413,771 bp, 6 plasmids
N2-fixing, filamentous, heterocyst-forming, obligate photoautotroph
6 plasmids

3. Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1

Nakamura et al (2002) DNA Res. 9: 123-130.
(formerly) Synechococcus elongatus
2,593,857 bp
thermophilic (optimum ca. 55 C), unicellular, obligate photoautotroph, motile
transformable by electroporation

4. Prochlorococcus marinus MED4

status: completed (JGI, USA)
1,657,995 bp: smallest known genome size
divinyl chlorophyll a/b
ubiquitous in tropical ocean, ecotype adapted to high light, oligotrophic, non-transformable?

5. Prochlorococcus marinus MIT9313

status: completed (JGI, USA)
2,404,274 bp
divinyl chlorophyll a/b
ubiquitous in tropical ocean, ecotype adapted to low light,

6. Prochlorococcus marinus SS120

status: finishing (EU, Genoscope)
ca. 1.8 Mb
Ecotype adapted to low light

7. Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1378

status: unknown (JGI, USA)

8. Synechococcus sp. WH8102

status: finishing (JGI, USA)
2,431,363 bp.
related with Prochlorococcus marinus
marine, unicellular
swimming motility

9. Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

status: finishing (JGI, USA)
ca. 9 Mb
equivalent to PCC 73102
heterocystous, N2-fixing, filamentous
facultative heterotroph (glucose, sucrose, fructose-utilizing)
akinete, hormogonia-forming
gliding motility
H2-evolving, resistant to acidic or anaerobic conditions

10. Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

status: finishing (JGI, USA)
ca. 7.7 Mb
marine, N2-fixing, non-heterocystous, filamentous

11. Synechococcus sp. PCC 6301

status: finishing (Nagoya Univ, Japan)
(formerly) Anacystis nidulans
ca. 2.7 Mb
unicellular, freshwater, obligate autotroph, Non-N2-fixing
transformation with conjugation

12. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942

status: cosmid sequencing (Texas A&M Univ, USA)
(formerly) Anacystis nidulans R2
ca. 2.7 Mb
unicellular, freshwater, obligate autotroph, Non-N2-fixing
naturally transformable

13. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

status: finishing (Penn State Univ, USA)
ca. 2.7 Mb
unicellular, marine, facultative heterotroph (glycerol-utilizing)
naturally transformable

14. Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421

status: finishing (Kazusa DNA Res Inst, Japan)
4,659,004 bp
athylakoid, most anciently branched cyanobacterium
obligate photoautotroph

15. Microcystis sp. PCC 7806

status: unknown (Pasteur Institute, France)
ca. 3.15 Mb
freshwater, causes waterbloom

16. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

status: unknown (Human Genome Center, China)
ca. 5.4 Mb
alkali-philic, obligate photoautotroph

17. Aphanothece halophytica

status: unknown (Meijo Univ)

[Other Phototrophic Organisms]

1. Phototrophic archeon Halobacterium NRC-1

2,571,010 bp (Thorsson et al. (2000) Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 12176-12181)

2. Green non-sulfur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus J-10-fl

ca. 5 Mb

3. Green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum strain TLS

2,154,946 bp (Eisen et al. (2002) Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 9509-9514)

4. Gram-positive photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacillus mobilus

4.2Mb, 4,500 ORFs
completed but not open (Integrated Genomics)

5. Purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

5,497,712 bp (2001 finished)

6. Purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides

4.34 Mb

7. Purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus 

3.7 Mb (2000)

8. Purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosus

9. Red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

12 Mb? (finishing) (Univ Tokyo)

10. Green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

11. Angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana

100 Mb ( 2000 finished)

12. Angiosperm Oryza sativa 430 Mb

13. Angiosperm Lotus japonicum

(Kazusa DNA Res Inst)

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